TWO INNOCENTS GARROTED The Delgado-Granado Affair by Carlos Fonseca. Translated by Paul Sharkey. (Kindle, Kobo, Mobi and ePub files)

 Anarchism in Spain  Comments Off on TWO INNOCENTS GARROTED The Delgado-Granado Affair by Carlos Fonseca. Translated by Paul Sharkey. (Kindle, Kobo, Mobi and ePub files)
Nov 182015
 

DelgadoGranadosmallerTWO INNOCENTS GARROTED The Delgado-Granado Affair by Carlos FonsecaThose not wishing to patronise Amazon/Kindle can purchase a MOBI or ePUB file (readable on your Kindle or other device) of any of our titles for between £1.00 and £1.50 (£1.50 in the present case); payment by PAYPAL to christie@btclick.com . Check out all Christiebooks Kindle titles HERE UK : £1.97 ; USA : $3.00 FRANCE : €2.78 ; GERMANY : €2.78 ; SPAIN : €2.78 ; ITALY: €2.78 ; NETHERLANDS : €2.78  ; JAPAN : ¥ 368CANADA : CDN$4.00 ; BRAZIL : R$ 11.55 ; AUSTRALIA : $4.21 ;   INDIA R198.00 ; Mexico : $50.55 —  ChristieBooks on KOBO  —  TWO INNOCENTS GARROTED The Delgado-Granado Affair by Carlos Fonseca. £2.00 — 

Beginning at 5.00 in the morning of 17 August, 1963, in the execution chamber of Carabanchel Prison, Madrid, two anarchists —Francisco Granado and Joaquin Delgado of ‘Defensa Interior’, the anti-Francoist defence committee of the Libertarian Movement in Exile (CNT, FAI, FIJL) — were strangled and their spines snapped by the medieval device known as the ‘garrote vil.’ Both were innocent of the crimes with which they had been convicted just four days earlier by a summary Francoist court martial— planting exposive devices in Franco’s security and fascist labour headquarters, neither of which had caused death or serious injuries. Carlos Fonseca, one of Spain’s finest investigative journalists, has examined this black episode of the Franco years with his usual historian’s rigour and forensic tenacity: interviewing friends and families of the two men, anarchists, informers, police, lawyers and judges, recovering documents and scouring the archives. A fascinating and chilling insight into the anti-Francoist resistance, the workings of Francoist ‘justice’, and the still unresolved case of Delgado and Granado, Spain’s own ‘Sacco and Vanzetti.’

DEFENSA INTERIOR’ (EL DI) Y LA RESISTENCIA CONTRA EL FRANQUISMO Octavio Alberola (Kindle, Lobo, MOBI, ePUB). With a background paper, in English.

 Anti-Francoist Resistance, France, Spain  Comments Off on DEFENSA INTERIOR’ (EL DI) Y LA RESISTENCIA CONTRA EL FRANQUISMO Octavio Alberola (Kindle, Lobo, MOBI, ePUB). With a background paper, in English.
Oct 082015
 

DefensaCoverDEFENSA INTERIOR’ (EL DI) Y LA RESISTENCIA CONTRA EL FRANQUISMO por Octavio Alberola Check out all Christiebooks titles HERE UK : £1.05 ; USA : $1.60 FRANCE : €1.43 ; GERMANY : €1.43 ; SPAIN : €1.43 ; ITALY: €1.43 ; NETHERLANDS : €1.43  ; JAPAN : ¥ 192CANADA : CDN$2.10 ; BRAZIL : R$ 6.29 ; AUSTRALIA : $2.27 ; INDIA : R105 ; MEXICO : $26.81 —  ChristieBooks on KOBO  — DEFENSA INTERIOR’ (EL DI) Y LA RESISTENCIA CONTRA EL FRANQUISMO — £1.00 For a MOBI or other eBook file — PAYPAL to christie@btclick.com — £1.00

Por razones generalmente partidistas, la resistencia libertaria contra el franquismo ha sido frecuentemente olvidada en la historiografía del antifranquismo. Pero este “olvido” es aún más notorio en el caso de la resistencia libertaria de los años sesenta, por ser en esos años cuando los libertarios intentaron organizar y poner en marcha su proyecto resistencial más consecuente, el DI (“Defensa Interior”), y cuando sus acciones obtuvieron mayor repercusión internacional. Efectivamente, al reactualizar la lucha activa contra el franquismo y la presencia del anarquismo, el DI fue el blanco de todos los que, inclusive entre los libertarios, no veían con buenos ojos una reactualización que ponía en evidencia su inmovilismo o que contrariaba sus planes y objetivos politicos.

No es de extrañar pues que coincidieran tantos intereses en ocultar la historia del DI y que por ello ésta sea hoy en día, hasta en los propios medios libertarios, tan poco conocida. Un desconocimiento que, gracias a la reactualización del caso Granado-Delgado en el marco del actual proceso de recuperación de la memoria histórica, está comenzando a ser paliado. No sólo porque al hablar de este caso se ha tenido necesariamente que hablar del DI, sino también porque las nuevas generaciones de militantes y de historiadores están demostrando un gran interés por descubrir la resistencia libertaria de esos años, que tantos intereses coincidieron en ocultarla. Este interés exige pues un deber de información de parte de los que podemos aportarla. Y esto es lo que me han pedido hacer hoy aquí; pero, antes de hacerlo me parece necesario hacer algunas puntualizaciones sobre el franquismo y el antifranquismo, desde el final de la guerra hasta 1960.

Background paper:
“DEFENSA INTERIOR (DI) was the clandestine planning and resistance organisation set up at the Limoges Congress in France, in late 1961, by the Defence Commission of the recently reunited three organisations of the exiled Spanish libertarian movement (MLE) — the CNT, the Spanish anarchist trade union; the FAI, the Iberian Anarchist Federation, and the FIJL, the Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth.
Continue reading »

LA CNT EN LA ENCRUCIJADA Aventuras de un heterodoxo por Luis Andrés Edo (£1.50/€2.00 see eBookshelf)

 Anarchism in Spain, Anarchist activism  Comments Off on LA CNT EN LA ENCRUCIJADA Aventuras de un heterodoxo por Luis Andrés Edo (£1.50/€2.00 see eBookshelf)
Mar 062015
 

EdoCoverSpanishLA CNT EN LA ENCRUCIJADA Aventuras de un heterodoxo por Luis Andrés Edo. (In Spanish) LOOK INSIDE  eBook £1.50/€2.00 (see eBookshelf ). Also available from Kindle and Kobo

NOW AVAILABLE ON KINDLE — £2.59 .  Check out all Christiebooks titles HERE UK : £2.59 ; USA : $4.00 FRANCE :  €3.57 ; SPAIN  €3.57 ; ITALY:  €3.57 ; GERMANY : €3.57NETHERLANDS : €3.57JAPAN : ¥ 479CANADA : CDN$ 5.01 ; BRAZIL : R$ 11.36 ; MEXICO: $59.80 ; AUSTRALIA : $5.12 ; INDIA : R247

ChristieBooks on KOBO  — LA CNT EN LA ENCRUCIJADA Aventuras de un heterodoxo por Luis Andrés Edo. (In Spanish)

Sin título académico alguno, Luis Andrés Edo es producto, experimental e intelectual, del asambleísmo de la CNT, de la Asamblea más importante de la historia del Exilio: La Asamblea de París, que se mantuvo funcionando durante 40 años.

Luis Andrés Edo descubrió dicha Asamblea tras su segunda deserción del Ejercito en 1954 como asiduo participante, todos los domingos, hasta 1966, cuando fue capturado en Madrid por la Unidad Móvil de la Brigada Político Social.

A esa formación asamblearia debe añadirse otra fase complementaria: sus diversos y prolongados pasajes (por un total de diez años) cumplidos en prisiones franquistas, donde puso a prueba toda su capacidad analítica adquirida en aquel auténtico Magisterio Asambleario citado más arriba, y se tradujo en innumerables informes sobre la situación carcelaria de aquellos años (a los que se hace referencia en este libro) y en un hecho histórico sin precedentes de las cárceles españolas, durante el franquismo: La ausencia de debates entre las diversas tendencias políticas de los presos se rompe en el Penal de Soria en 1967-68, de cuyas discusiones Luis Andrés Edo elaboró clandestinamente su libro La Corriente, de la que hace ahora una amplia referencia.

Continue reading »

Three French Libertarians in Franco’s Jails — Alain Pecunia, Bernard Ferri and Guy Batoux by Steven Forti (Atlantica). Translated by Paul Sharkey

 Anarchism in Spain  Comments Off on Three French Libertarians in Franco’s Jails — Alain Pecunia, Bernard Ferri and Guy Batoux by Steven Forti (Atlantica). Translated by Paul Sharkey
Jul 222014
 
Alain-Pecunia-1965

Alain Pecunia-1965 (Carabanchel Prison)

“Those were bright and happy years. Awesome times! We were out to make revolution. Was it worth it? On that I am clear; it was worth it!” So says an amiable and chatty Alain Pecunia in a phone conversation from his Paris home. Thereby summing up his teenage years back in the 60s, divided between De Gaulle’ France and Franco’s Spain. Alain Pecunia’s story is little known this side of the Pyrenees, although his life has a lot to do with Spain and anti-Francoism. In 2004 he wrote an account of those years in Les ombres ardentes. Un francais de 17 ans dans les prisons franquistes (The Burning Shadows. A 17 Year-Old Frenchman in Franco’s Prisons). “There is a lot of talk about the intellectuals who opposed Franco but very little is said of the workers and peasants who did so. Which is why I wrote the book”, he says. “In Carabanchel prison I ran into peasants from Valencia and miners from Mieres. I dedicate Les ombres ardentes to them, lest we forget about their struggle.” (en Français – en Español)

Continue reading »

“Castro turned his back on anti-Francoists” Interview with ‘Interior Defence’ (D.I.) organiser Octavio Alberola in Basque journal Argia by Aitor Azurki (Translated by Paul Sharkey)

 Anti-Francoist Resistance, Cuba  Comments Off on “Castro turned his back on anti-Francoists” Interview with ‘Interior Defence’ (D.I.) organiser Octavio Alberola in Basque journal Argia by Aitor Azurki (Translated by Paul Sharkey)
Feb 132014
 

che_fidel_97Castro and Che Guevara in the early stages of the line-up that laid the groundwork in Mexico  for the Cuban Revolution in the 1950s. The aborted attempt on the life of dictator Franco in San Sebastian in 1962. These days the anarchist Octavio Alberola Surinach (born in Alaior in the Balearic Islands in 1928) is critical of Castroism and a zealous champion of historical memory.

 “In the 60s, a lot of young Cubans opposed to General Batista’s dictatorship started arriving in Mexico. By 1956, the Castro brothers’ movement, the 26 July Movement, was the largest Cuban revolutionary group in Mexico.” The dictator Batista had just pardoned them after they were arrested in connection with the failed attack on the Moncada barracks and among their number were the Castro brothers who then made contact with people eager and ready to assist them. One such person was the libertarian Octavio Alberola Surinach: “At the time I was a member of the Mexican student movement and had links with groups and trade union organisations that might hep them to organise propaganda events in support of the fight against the Cuban dictatorship”, Alberola says. Remember that this was an anarchist who arrived in Mexico aboard the vessel ‘Ipanema’ from France with hundreds more refuges, along  with his father who had been a teacher in the rationalist schools that operated in Spain up until 1939.

Continue reading »

Juicio Contra Franco by Victor Garcia, Venezuela, 1963 (Kindle edition — £1.26/€1.51/US$2.00)

 Anarchism in Spain, anti-fascism  Comments Off on Juicio Contra Franco by Victor Garcia, Venezuela, 1963 (Kindle edition — £1.26/€1.51/US$2.00)
Jan 072014
 

JuicioContraFrancoJuicio Contra Franco by Victor García (in Spanish). First published in 1963 by ‘Ruta’, Venezuela. This eBook (Kindle edition) is published by ChristieBooks in conjunction with the Grupo Cultural de Estudios Sociales de Melbourne and Acracia Publications —  Check out all Kindle editions of ChristieBooks titles  NOW AVAILABLE ON KINDLE — £1.26/€1.51/$2.00  READ INSIDE!  ¡LEER EL INTERIOR!

UK : £1.26 ; USA : $2.00 ; Germany : €1.51 ; France :  €1.51 ; Spain:  €1.51 ; Italy:  €1.51 ; Japan: ¥ 210 ; India: R124.00 : Canada: CDN$ 2.13 ; Brazil: R$4.75 ; Mexico: $26.22 ; Australia: $2.24

On 29 and 30 June 1962 three bombs exploded in Barcelona, one at the local Falange headquarters, another at the Monterols College — linked in those years to the far-right Opus Dei movement — the third in the National Insurance Institute. There were no casualties and damage was minimal.

On 19 September 1962 three young libertarian members of the local anti-fascist resistance were arrested and charged with carrying out these attacks: Jorge Conill, a chemistry student at the University of Barcelona; Marcelino Jiménez and Antonio Mur Peirón Cubas, both workers. On 22 September, the three youths were tried by a court martial on charges of terrorism and banditry and one of whom, Conill, was sentenced to death. In Milan, the Libertarian Youth Group attempted to prevent his execution by kidnapping Spain’s vice consul in the city.

Bertolo

Three of the accused anarchists in the Varese kidnap trial

The subject of this booklet is the 1962 trial, in Varese, Italy, of these libertarian activists and several supporters involved in the kidnapping— a trial that ended in a resounding condemnation of the Franco regime. The so-called democracies ignored the protest and continued supporting Franco’s clerico-fascist regime in Spain. And why not? After all, it provided them with a good, cheap, tourist destination, cheaper labour and, to complete the picture, all the military bases they so desperately needed to maintain the East-West balance of power in Europe.

Meanwhile, to save itself from impending economic collapse, Francoism saw only one possible salvation, entry into the European Common Market.
For this reason the regime turned all its diplomats, its influence and propaganda efforts to reinventing Francoism in a feverish PR exercise to convince democratic countries of the EC that the regime was changing and had had democratic aspirations.

Hence the easing of restrictions on the press, the election of trade union officials within the fascist syndicates (unions), the introduction into the Spanish political scene of an unusual vice-president of the Council — and the anticipation of the regency and the coronation of a Bourbon king.

Hence, too, the tiresome mantra spread by many deluded and some paid-for agents that “In Spain there are no political prisoners”.

The most dramatic rejection of this slogan was pronounced in the small Italian town of Varese during the trial of the young libertarians accused of kidnapping the vice-consul in Milan.

As witnesses and accused appeared in the Varese courtroom, it became clear that the principal accused was not among the defendants in the dock: Francisco Franco, Caudillo of Spain by the Grace of God.

On 16 November La Stampa’s Turin correspondent Gigi Ghirotti wrote: “Behind the accused in the dock looms the shadow of a dictatorship that subjects defendants of all political beliefs to closed trials without lawyers, sentences that are not subject to appeal, and courts that lack the courage to announce their verdicts to the condemned…”

In the world of today, any defiance of political oppression, any mass resistance to economic madness, any direct action to defend or regain living standards is all too often met with assault by the boss class’s lickspittle legal machine. This book provides a useful and heartening account of how the full force of the law was challenged and derailed in court to provide an exemplary victory for natural justice, with the defendants triumphantly acquitted outright of any wrongdoing, while instead the mask of innocence was torn away from the ultimate oppressors, who were themselves indicted with many of the grossest of crimes.

Pensar la utopía en la acción. Trazas de un anarquista heterodoxo 1950-1975 : en el exilio y en la clandestinidad 1975-2013 : en la “Transición” y la “Democracia” Octavio Alberola (Edición Kindle)

 anarchism, Anarchist ideas, Anarchist resistance, Resistance movements  Comments Off on Pensar la utopía en la acción. Trazas de un anarquista heterodoxo 1950-1975 : en el exilio y en la clandestinidad 1975-2013 : en la “Transición” y la “Democracia” Octavio Alberola (Edición Kindle)
Jun 012013
 

Octavio_AlberolaPensar la utopía en la acción Trazas de un anarquista heterodoxo 1950-1975 : en el exilio y en la clandestinidad 1975-2013 : en la “Transición” y la “Democracia” por Octavio Alberola Surinach. ISBN 978-1-873976-05-0, ChristieBooks, PO Box 35, Hastings, East Sussex, TN34 1ZS (Check out all Kindle editions of ChristieBooks titles) NOW AVAILABLE ON KINDLE — £2.72/€3,18 READ INSIDE!  ¡LEER EL INTERIOR! See also Spanish anarchism and Revolutionary Action

UK : £2.72 ; USA : $4.11 ; Germany : €3,18 ; France :  €3,18 ; Spain:  €3,18 ; Italy :  €3,18 ; Japan : ¥ 405 ; Canada : CDN$ 4.13 ; Brazil : R$ 8,21

UtopiacoverPara el autor, “pensar la utopía es pensar una sociedad fundada en la anarquía, porque sólo rechazando la autoridad es posible la libertad, la igualdad y la fraternidad”. Y pensarla “en la acción” es por haberlo hecho durante su exilio en México, en donde  militó socialmente y colaboró con el Movimiento 26 de Julio en la lucha contra la dictadura del general Batista en Cuba, y luego al incorporarse en 1962 a la lucha clandestina antifranquista hasta la muerte de Franco en 1975 y comenzar la llamada ‘Transición a la democracia’ que “ha culminado hoy en la regentada por los herederos del franquismo”. 

Continue reading »

Franco Me Hizo Terrorista. Memorias del anarquista que intentó matar al dictator Stuart Christie (Kindle eBook €4,12)

 Anarchist resistance, CNT, Prisons, Spain  Comments Off on Franco Me Hizo Terrorista. Memorias del anarquista que intentó matar al dictator Stuart Christie (Kindle eBook €4,12)
Sep 032012
 

 

Franco Me Hizo Terrorista. Memorias del anarquista que intentó matar al dictator Stuart Christie (Traducción y adaptación de General Franco Made Me A Terrorist por Jorge Barriuso con prólogo por Carlos Fonseca). ISBN 978-1-873976-60-9.

España ; France ; Germany ; Italy (€4,12); UK  (£3.25) ; US/Canada/India and RoW ($5.16)

De las calles de Glasgow a las cárceles de la España fascista, es éste el fascinante testimonio personal de un hombre que se enfrenta a los dilemas de una vida dedicada a la libertad. NOAM CHOMSKY

En el verano de 1964 y con dieciocho años recién cumplidos, el anarquista escocés Stuart Christie viajó a España con una carga de explosivos escondida bajo su ropa y con una misión: matar a Franco. Su temprana obsesión con el dictador había nacido algunos años antes, en los albores de su adolescencia, cuando sus familiares y su círculo de amigos adultos nutrían sus reuniones con anécdotas sobre la Guerra Civil y las Brigadas Internacionales, en las que muchos de ellos habían participado.

Pero quien más influyó en su vocación fue una figura mucho más fuerte y determinante en el ideario de Christie: su abuela. Siempre guiado por su curiosa musa inspiradora, Christie comenzaría a contactar con algunos exiliados de la España franquista, a quienes pronto les confesaría su más íntimo deseo: «Quiero hacer algo más que protestar y repartir panfletos», les dijo, y sus nuevas amistades no tardarían en complacerle. En agosto de 1964, cuando su mundo aún no se extendía más allá del sur de Inglaterra, Christie recibió instrucciones para cumplir con su primera misión internacional. Y así comenzó un viaje lleno de insólitas peripecias, que acabó de una manera ciertamente insospechada por su protagonista.

En estas extraordinarias memorias, Christie relata su experiencia, y dibuja un autorretrato digno de ser recordado en la memoria española como el de uno de los ultimo’s idealistas del convulso siglo XX.

Stuart Christie nació en Glasgow en 1946; anarquista convencido, viajó a España en 1964 cargado de explosivos como parte de una misión para matar a Franco, organizada por Defensa Interior, un ala radical de la CNT. Fue arrestado por la Brigada Político Social y sentenciado a una pena de veinte años de prisión en Carabanchel. En 1967 consiguió la libertad gracias a un indulto, pero tres años después fue arrestado y encarcelado en Londres como sospechoso de pertenecer al grupo terrorista Angry Brigade, cargo del que finalmente resultó absuelto.

Fue editor del Cienfuegos Press, donde ha publicado la Review of Anarchist Literature. Ha escrito numerosos libros, entre los que destacan The Floodgates of Anarchy (1970) (Anarquismo y Lucha de Clases – 2012), Stefano Delle Chiaíe: Portrait of a Black Terrorist (l984) y We, The Anarchists/ A Study of The Iberian Anarchist Federation (FAI) 1927-1937 (¡Nosotros Los Anarquistas! Un estudio de la Federación Anarquista Ibérica (FAI) 1927-1937). Franco me hizo terrorista forma parte de sus memorias, una trilogía bajo el nombre de The Christie Files, compuesta por My Granny Made Me an Anarchist (2002), General Franco Made Me a Terrorist (2003) y Edward Heath Made Me Angry (2004).

SUCH A PARCEL OF ROGUES . . .

Notes for an ongoing inquiry into the pernicious role of police and security service informers, infiltrators, agents of influence, malfeasors and traitors, particularly within the Spanish anarchist movement (1939-1975)— and any lessons to be learned thereof . . .

 anarchism, CNT, Ethics, Secret Services/Servicios Especiales, Spanish anarchism, Spies and informers  Comments Off on SUCH A PARCEL OF ROGUES . . .

Notes for an ongoing inquiry into the pernicious role of police and security service informers, infiltrators, agents of influence, malfeasors and traitors, particularly within the Spanish anarchist movement (1939-1975)— and any lessons to be learned thereof . . .

Jun 152012
 

Cipriano Mera’s challenge to Germinal Esgleas (1903–81) and Vicente Llansola (1915–96), 11 September 1964

Cipriano Mera Sanz (1897-1975)

I, Cipriano Mera*, hereby impugn Germinal Esgleas**, general secretary of the Intercontinental Secretariat (SI) of the National Confederation of Labour of Spain in Exile (CNTE), on the following grounds:

FIRST: For deliberately accepting the position he currently holds, despite the fact that the Congress which appointed him rubber-stamped the performance of the DI Section (Interior Defence, the clandestine action planning section of the CNT-FAI-FIJL) — from which he later resigned — whereas he was knowingly at odds with said performance and with the aims and objectives of the aforementioned Section (the DI), and for exploiting his position — from within and without — deliberately to sabotage said Section, right from its inception.

SECOND: As the person primarily responsible for the majority of the problems that thwarted the normal coordination of activities under the Defence (DI) remit, and because of his determination to torpedo its operations, as evidenced by his resignation some months in advance of the Confederal Congress at which he knew he would be proposed as candidate for the post of general secretary, thereby pre-empting any scrutiny of his conduct in respect of his obligations as a member of the DI.

Continue reading »

May 272012
 

Press clippings relating to First of May Group (Grupo Primero de Mayo) actions

Spanish anarchism and revolutionary action – 1961-1974 by Octavio Alberola and Ariane Gransac with Prologue by Luis Andrés Edo, ChristieBooks (Kindle edition only – for the moment): KINDLE UK, USA, FRANCE, GERMANY, SPAIN, ITALY

This account of the role of anarchist activism in Europe between 1961 and 1974 (by two of the principal protagonists in the events they describe) was first published in Spanish and French in 1975, shortly after the authors’ release from prison following the kidnapping Francoist banker Baltasar Suárez. To this day it remains  essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the history and development of the libertarian opposition to the Franco Dictatorship subsequent to the urban and rural guerrilla tactics as practised by Sabaté, Facerías, and Caraquemada, etc. It examines the birth of the clandestine ‘Defensa Interior’ Section of the Spanish Libertarian Movement (MLE – CNT-FAI-FIJL) through to ‘The First of May Group‘ and its influence on — and links with — other European action groups of the later 1960s and early 1970s, groups such as ‘The Angry Brigade‘, the ‘Grupos Autonomos de Combate — GAC‘, 2nd June Group, the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación — ‘MIL‘, Gruppo d’Azione Partigiano – GAP, Grupos de Acción Revolucionaria Internacional — ‘GARI‘, etc.

The authors: Ariane Gransac and Octavio Alberola, Bruges April 1968. The photo was taken soon after their release from their respective Belgian prisons. Ariane had been subsequently expelled but had returned clandestinely with other comrades to meet with Octavio.

The story begins in late 1961 with the creation of Sección DEFENSA INTERIOR (DI), the clandestine planning and action organisation set up at the Limoges Congress in France by the Defence Commission of the recently reunited three wings of the exiled Spanish libertarian movement (MLE — Movimiento Libertario Español) — the CNT, the Spanish anarcho-syndicalist trade union; the FAI, the Iberian Anarchist Federation, and the FIJL, the Iberian Federation of Libertarian Youth. One of the DI’s principal objectives was to organise and carry out attempts on the life of General Franco. Its other role was to generate examples of resistance by means of propaganda by deed. The DI’s short-term objectives were: to remind the world, unremittingly, that Franco’s brutal and repressive dictatorship had not only survived WWII but was now flourishing through tourism and US financial and diplomatic support; to provide solidarity for those continuining the struggle within Spain; to polarise public opinion and focus attention on the plight of the steadily increasing number of political prisoners in Franco’s jails; to interrupt the conduct of Francoist commercial and diplomatic life; undermine its financial basis — tourism; to take the struggle against Franco into the international sphere by showing the world that Franco did not enjoy unchallenged power and that there was resistance to the regime within and beyond Spain’s borders.

Continue reading »