THE MORAL BASIS OF ANARCHISM by Pietro Gori

 anarchism  Comments Off on THE MORAL BASIS OF ANARCHISM by Pietro Gori
Jul 202015
 

Gori1THE MORAL BASIS OF ANARCHISM by Pietro Gori (Kindle and Kobo editions)
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In this 1904 pamphlet, Italian anarchist composer and poet, Pietro Gori considers the moral and ethical evolution of human society from its origins to the present day. Gori challenges the bourgeois media’s negative representation of anarchism as synonymous with disorder and violence: i.e., propaganda by authoritarian institutions and bourgeois vested interest groups intended to demonise anarchists and anarchism. For Gori violence is anathema and, indeed, originates with power and provokes popular struggle as an inevitable response. The moral foundations of anarchy, then, lie in the dawn of a new future, founded on new principles, such as mutual aid and solidarity.

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En recuerdo a Juan Gómez Casas (1921—2001) por Juan Busquets Verges

 Anarchism in Spain, CNT  Comments Off on En recuerdo a Juan Gómez Casas (1921—2001) por Juan Busquets Verges
Jul 162015
 

GomezCasas“Hace tiempo que quería testimoniar mi más profunda estima al compañero y amigo, que con su ejemplo moral influenció en mí y a otros compañeros que lo frecuentaron, Hablar de Juanito, como solíamos llamar sus más íntimos, no es una tarea fácil.

Juan Gómez Casas nació en Burdeos en 1921. Fue detenido en Madrid, en su domicilio de Carabanchel bajo, el 15 de enero de 1948, siendo Secretario General de las Juventudes Libertarias y del Comité Peninsular de la FAI. La policía le incautó la imprenta donde editaban Tierra Libre y Juventud Libre, condenado por un Tribunal Militar a 30 años de reclusión de los cuales cumplió 14.

Cuando ingresé en el penal de San Miguel de los Reyes (Valencia) en 1950, procedente de la Modelo de Barcelona, después de pasar (el denominado periodo sanitario) veinte días incomunicado, salí al patio donde había centeneras de presos. El primero que se acercó para saludarme fue Juanito, era un hombre de mediana estatura, delgado como la mayoría de los detenidos que estaban allí a causa del hambre que se pasaba.

Con una voz amable me informó sobre algunos aspectos de la vida en el penal, pertenecía al grupo mayoritario de la CNT, unos tres cientos compañeros.

Juan Gómez Casas, tenía una cultura sólida. Se pasaba parte de su tiempo estudiando, haciendo muchos apuntes que más tarde le sirvieron para publicar cuando salió en libertad en 1962. Hablaba correctamente el francés y el esperanto. En la cárcel aprendió el inglés y el alemán. Idiomas que le sirvieron cuando recuperó la libertad para traducir varias obras clásicas del anarquismo.

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JOSEPH FOUCHÉ: The Portrait of a Politician by Stefan Zweig (Kindle, Kobi and Mobi)

 France, Historical, Politics  Comments Off on JOSEPH FOUCHÉ: The Portrait of a Politician by Stefan Zweig (Kindle, Kobi and Mobi)
Jul 162015
 

Fouchecover2Check out all Christiebooks titles on Kindle & ChristieBooks on KOBO   However, for some unknown reason (possibly because they have a more expensive edition available from which they take a larger cut!) Amazon Kindle have made this title available only on their .com site at $3.00 , but we can provide a mobi file (which you can read on a Kindle reader) for £2.00/$3.00 by Paypal. The title is also available on Kobo at £2.00

“Joseph Fouché, one of the most powerful men of his day, and one of the most remarkable men of all time, was little loved by his contemporaries and has received even less justice from posterity. Napoleon in St. Helena; Robespierre at the Jacobin Club; Carnot, Barras, and Talleyrand in their memoirs; the French historians, no matter whether royalist, republican, or Bonapartist—one and all spit venom as soon as his name cornes up for discussion. He is a “born traitor,” a “pitiful intriguer,” a “man with a slimy reptilian nature,” a “professional turncoat,” a “creature with the base spirit of a policeman,” a “contemptible immoralist.” No term of abuse is spared him; and neither Lamartine nor Michelet nor Louis Blanc makes any serious endeavour to throw light on his character, or (which would be more to the point) to analyse the springs of his amazingly persistent lack of character—his unfailing want of principle. The first effective presentation of his personality is to be found in Louis Madelin’s monumental biography, from which I myself like most other writers on Fouché have mainly drawn for my facts. In general, however, we find that this man who during one of the most salient periods in history was a leader of every party in turn and was unique in surviving the destruction of them all, this man who in duels upon the psychological plane was able to get the better of a Napoleon and a Robespierre, is tacitly relegated to the back rows among the supers instead of being given his proper place in the centre of the stage.

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THE LAW OF NUMBERS by Ricardo Mella (Translated by Paul Sharkey). LA LEY DEL NÚMERO (en Castellano) Kindle and Kobo editions

 anarchism, Anarchist ideas  Comments Off on THE LAW OF NUMBERS by Ricardo Mella (Translated by Paul Sharkey). LA LEY DEL NÚMERO (en Castellano) Kindle and Kobo editions
Jul 102015
 

NumbersCoverTHE LAW OF NUMBERS y LA LEY DEL NÚMERO by Ricardo Mella (Kindle and Kobo editions)
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Edición español — aqui

Ricardo Mella Cea (1861–1925) was a prominent Spanish anarchist writer and activist of the late 19th and early 20th centuries who remains one of the most profound,  penetrating, lucid and theoretically sophisticated of anarchist thinkers.

“Spencer has it that the great political superstition of the divine right of kings has been replaced by the great political superstition of the divine right of parliaments. He goes on to say, “The anointing oil seems to have switched undetected from one head to many, consecrating them and their rights.”

Let us take a look at the great superstition which drew such eloquent words from the premier positive philosopher.

Whether we are talking about monarchies or republics, the origin of parliament is the will of the majority, in theory at any rate. At the same time, the supremacy of the greater number rests upon its incontrovertible right to govern everyone, directly or indirectly. The claim is — and the querying of it is scarcely tolerated — that the majority is more far-sighted on every issue than the minority and that, since all men have much in common, it is only reasonable and necessary that the majority should determine how and in what manner general purposes are to be served.

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El Movimiento Libertario Español Pasado, presente y futuro (Suplemento a Cuedernos de Ruedo iberico. 1974) José Martínez y José Martin-Artajo (Redactores)

 Anarchism in Spain, News  Comments Off on El Movimiento Libertario Español Pasado, presente y futuro (Suplemento a Cuedernos de Ruedo iberico. 1974) José Martínez y José Martin-Artajo (Redactores)
Jun 292015
 

MLECover1El Movimiento Libertario Español. Pasado, presente y futuro (Suplemento a Cuedernos de Ruedo iberico, 1974) redactado por José Martínez y José Ignacio Martin-Artajo (Kindle and Kobo editions)
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El primer imperativo que nos impusimos fue el de evitar que nuestro conjunto tuviera un carácter arqueológico. Caer en la tentación arqueológica era fácil. Abordar la historia reciente del anarquismo español, tratar de la práctica actual de sus organizaciones, ceñir aunque sólo sea flojamente los problemas que tiene planteados es tarea ardua que nos ha procurado muchos sinsabores. El segundo imperativo era evitar el monolitismo, no incurrir en el pecado de aplicar una línea estricta al fascículo. Esto exigía no caer en «el fetichismo de las siglas», no centrarnos en el estudio de las organizaciones libertarias actuales y de las posiciones oficiales de éstas, sino intentar partir de una realidad más profunda, de la «corriente libertaria» a que aluden algunos de los colaboradores del suplemento, soporte no sólo de aquellas organizaciones y portadora de sus doctrinas «oficiales» sino fenómeno subyacente productor de una mayor riqueza de formas orgánicas, de valores ideológicos y de prácticas concretas. imponía alinear a lo largo de sus páginas trabajos críticos construidos a partir de ideologías no libertarias y colaboraciones de miembros de las diversas tendencias libertarias.

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GANGRENE by Béchir Boumaaza (Kindle and Kobo editions — .mobi files available as well)

 France, repression  Comments Off on GANGRENE by Béchir Boumaaza (Kindle and Kobo editions — .mobi files available as well)
Jun 042015
 

GangreneGANGRENE Béchir Boumaaza (Translated from the French by Robert Silvers) (Kindle and Kobo editions)
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A damning account of the merciless brutality of the torture methods employed by the security apparatus of De Gaulle’s Fifth Republic in its repression of the Algerian struggle for independence. Gangrene consists of the dispassionate depositions made by seven Algerians (a commercial traveller, students, a journalist, and a pharmaceutical assistant) arrested in December 1958 by the French counter-intelligence service, the D.S.T. (La Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire) on the orders of its then director, Roger Wybot, and Paris police chief and former Petainist and Nazi collaborator Maurice Papon*. Originally published in France on 16 June 1959, La Gangrène was immediately banned and the print run seized by the De Gaulle government; on June 23, French police smashed the plates intended for a second edition. In spite of the sadistic treatment to which the students were subjected, the language and style of the narrative is told in a restrained and unsensational manner; how a man who refused to speak was forced to strip naked, hung upon a spit like a trussed turkey, electrodes applied to his genitals, his head plunged into a tub of liquid containing urine and vomit. It is an historical irony that many of the police ‘specialists’ involved in these horror-steeped activities, particularly Wybot himself — De Gaulle’s ‘Beria’ in London— were former ‘heroes’ of the so-called French Resistance. As one of them remarked: “I was tortured by the Nazis; now I do it myself.” Perhaps the final irony was that these tortures — carried out in the name of the Fifth Republic — took place in the basement of 11 rue des Saussaise, the former Paris headquarters of the Gestapo, where many of their own comrades had been subjected to a similar fate. Plus ça change!

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A Dominie’s Log, A Dominie Dismissed and A Dominie in Doubt A. S. Neill (Kindle, Kobo and .mobi editions)

 Anarchist education  Comments Off on A Dominie’s Log, A Dominie Dismissed and A Dominie in Doubt A. S. Neill (Kindle, Kobo and .mobi editions)
May 242015
 

Dominie1 For reasons known only to themselves Amazon/Kindle have made these editions available solely in the US market — USA : $3.00. However, we can provide .mobi files of these wonderful books that can be copied to – and read – on your Kindle device. (Payment by Paypal). The books are available, without regional discrimination, on KOBO.

A DOMINIE’S LOG by A.S. Neill (£2.50) A Dominie’s Log was directly due to the Scottish Code of Education, by which it is forbidden to enter general reflections or opinions in the official log-book. Requiring a safety-valve, a young Dominie decides to keep a private log-book. In it he jots down the troubles and comedies of the day’s work. Sometimes he startles even his own bairns by his unconventionality. There is a lot in Education that he does not understand. The one thing, however, that he does comprehend is the Child Mind, and he possesses the saving quality of humour. (1915)

DominieDismissedA DOMINIE DISMISSED by A.S. Neill (£2.50) In consequence of the Dominie’s go-as- you-please methods of educating village children, the inevitable happens he is dismissed, giving place to an approved disciplinarian. The unhappy Dominie, forced to leave his bairns, seeks to enlist but the doctor discovers that his lungs are affected, and he is ordered an open-air life. He returns as a cattleman to the village where he has previously been a school master. Incidentally, he watches the effect of his successor’s teaching, the triumph of his own methods and the discomfiture of his rival at the hands of the children, in whom the Dominie cultivated personality and the rights of bairns. (1917)

DominieDoubtA DOMINIE IN DOUBT by A.S. Neill (£2.50) One day when re-reading A Dominie’s Log, its author decided that a book is out of date five minutes after it is written. In other words, he was in doubt—terrible and perplexing doubt. Do I really understand children? he asked himself. Are my ideas upon education right or wrong ? He decided that he had not sufficiently studied the psychology of children and that, in consequence, he had been guilty of almost criminal neglect. In the same delightfully discursive and humorous manner the Dominic reveals himself, as attractive in his doubts as in his convictions. He does not repent his unconventions. On the contrary, he reproaches himself for having been a heretic, whereas he ought to have been an arch-heretic.  (1920)

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ASNeill

Alexander Sutherland Neill was born in Forfar in the N.E, of Scotland on 17 October 1883 (d. 23/9/1973) to George and Mary Neill. He was raised in an austere, Calvinist house and instilled with values of fear, guilt, and adult and divine authority, which he later repudiated. His father was the village dominie (Scottish schoolmaster) of Kingsmuir, near Forfar in eastern Scotland; his mother, too, had been a teacher before her marriage. The village dominie held a position in the community of prestige, but hierarchically beneath that of the gentry, doctors, and clergymen. The dominie, typically, controlled overcrowded classrooms with the tawse (the belt), as the means of maintaining good order and discipline.

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ANARCHY AND CHRISTIANITY Two essays on Christian Anarchism: ‘On Anarchy’ and ‘The Kingdom Of God Is Within You’ by Leo Tolstoy (Kindle and Kobo editions)

 anarchism, Religion  Comments Off on ANARCHY AND CHRISTIANITY Two essays on Christian Anarchism: ‘On Anarchy’ and ‘The Kingdom Of God Is Within You’ by Leo Tolstoy (Kindle and Kobo editions)
May 202015
 

TolstoySMALLANARCHY AND CHRISTIANITY Two essays on Christian Anarchism: ‘On Anarchy’ and ‘The Kingdom Of God Is Within You’ by Leo Tolstoy. Read Inside. NOW AVAILABLE ON KINDLE — £1.91 .  Check out all Christiebooks titles HERE UK : £1.91 ; USA : $3.00 FRANCE : €2.62 ; SPAIN : €2.62 ; ITALY: €2.62 ; GERMANY : €2.62; NETHERLANDS : €2.62  ; JAPAN : ¥ 358CANADA : CDN$ 3.60 ; BRAZIL : R$ 8.99 ; AUSTRALIA : $3.73 ; INDIA : R191 ; MEXICO : $45.02

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The Kingdom of God Is Within You [Tsarstvo Bozhiye vnutri vas]) and On Anarchy by Leo Tolstoy are philosophical treatises on the organisation of society based on a literal Christian interpretation of the New Testament. The former first appeared in Germany in 1894, after being banned in his home country of Russia; the latter essay was written in 1900.

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TIGRE JACK y otras prosas atroces José Ignacio Martín-Artajo Saracho (Kindle and Kobo editions)

 anarchist fiction, Fiction, Literature  Comments Off on TIGRE JACK y otras prosas atroces José Ignacio Martín-Artajo Saracho (Kindle and Kobo editions)
May 202015
 

TigreJack2TIGRE JACK y otras prosas atroces por José Ignacio Martín-Artajo Saracho. (Kindle and Kobo editions)— Look Inside
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Tigre Jack es una de las historias más impresionantes, más alucinantes que ha producido la literatura española, cualquier literatura, en cualquier tiempo: la historia de un niño salvaje, su escapada a la selva, de su vida en la selva, de su regreso al mundo civilizado, de su tragedia. Todo ello, con con la precisión, la falta de prejuicio vivacidad que hacen que quienquiera que lea este relato se vea en dificultades para olvidar su fuerza, y su espanto, en mucho tiempo.

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THE PARIS COMMUNE Louise Michel, Nicolas Walter, Peter Kropotkin (Kindle and Kobo editions)

 Anarchists in France, France  Comments Off on THE PARIS COMMUNE Louise Michel, Nicolas Walter, Peter Kropotkin (Kindle and Kobo editions)
May 172015
 

The CommuneTHE PARIS COMMUNE  Louise Michel, Nicolas Walter, Peter Kropotkin. (Kindle and Kobo editions)— Look Inside
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This title consists of three separate essays that were first published in Kropotkin’s paper Le Revolte for the anniversaries of the Paris Commune in March 1880, March 1881, and March 1882. They were put together to form a single chapter of Kropotkin’s first political book (‘La Commune de Paris’, Paroles d’un Revolte, Paris 1885). The first English translation was published eighty years ago as the second Freedom Pamphlet (The Commune of Paris, London 1891), and was reprinted five years later in the American Liberty Library (The Commune of Paris, Columbus Junction 1896); it has recently been included in an abridged and inaccurate version in Martin A. Miller’s edition of Kropotkin’s Selected Writings on Anarchism and Revolution. The translation was revised by the late Nicolas Walter to make the original version of the essay available in English for the first time.

Louise Michel

Memories of the Commune

I at first wrote this volume without telling anything about myself. When friends pointed this out I added a few personal episodes despite the ennui it caused me. As I did so the opposite effect was produced: as I advanced in the tale I came to love reliving this time of struggle for freedom, which was my true existence, and I love losing myself in the memory of this.

This is why I look upon my thoughts as a series of tableaux where pass thousands of existences that have disappeared forever.

There we are on the Champs de Mars: our arms are stacked and the night is beautiful. At about 3:00 a.m. we leave, thinking we are going to Versailles. I speak with old Louis Moreau, and he too is happy to be setting out. In place of my old rifle he gave me a Remington carbine. For the first time I have a good weapon though it’s said not to be too reliable, which isn’t true. I recount all the lies I told my mother so she wouldn’t worry. All my precautions are taken, I have letters full of reassuring news in my pockets that will be post-dated. I tell her they needed me in an ambulance; that I’ll be going to Montmartre on the first occasion.

Poor woman, how I loved her. How grateful I am to her for the freedom she allowed me to act as my conscience dictated, and how much I would have liked to spare her the bad days she so often had.

The comrades from Montmartre are there. We’re sure of each other and sure of those who command.

Now we go quiet; the fight has begun. There is a hill and I shout as I run forward: To Versailles! To Versailles! Razoua tosses me his sword to rally the men. We shake hands at the top; the sky is on fire, and no one has been wounded.

We deploy as tirailleurs in the fields full of little tree stumps. You would think we had done this before.

There we are in Moulineaux. The gendarmes aren’t holding out as was thought. We think we’re going to advance further but no, we’re going to spend the night, some of us in the fort, others in the Jesuit convent. Those of us who thought we were going to go further, those from Montmartre and myself, cry with rage. And yet we’re confident. Neither Eudes nor Ranvier nor the others would remain in place without serious reason. They tell us the reasons but we don’t listen. We regain hope: there are now cannons at the fort of Issy and it will be a good to remain there. We had left with strange munitions, the leftovers of the siege, the bullets not matching the guns’ caliber.

I see passing before me like shades those who were in the great hall below the convent: Eudes, the May brothers, the Caria brothers, three old men who were as brave as heroes: old man Moreau, old man Chevalet, old man Caria, Razoua, all federals from Monmartre; a negro black as ebony with pointy white teeth like those of a wild beast: he’s good, intelligent, and brave; and a former pontifical Zouave converted to the Commune.

The Jesuits have left, apart from an old man who says he’s not afraid of the Commune and who remains peacefully in his room and the cook who, I don’t know why, makes me think of Brother Jean des Eutomures. The paintings that decorate the walls aren’t worth two sous, aside from a portrait that gives a good idea of the subject’s character: it must be some Jesuit director. There is also an adoration of the magi, one of whom resembles an ugly version of our black federal, along with paintings from saintly history and other foolishness.

The fort is magnificent, a spectral fortress, bitten into on high by the Prussians, for whom this breach went perfectly well. I spend a good deal of time with the artillerymen. We receive the visit there of Victorine Eudes, a long-time friend who is still young. She too fires well.

There are the women with their bullet-pierced red flag saluting the Federals. They set up mobile hospital in the fort, from which the wounded are sent to those in Paris that are better equipped. In order to be more useful we spread out. I go to the train station at Clamart, fired upon every night by the Versailles artillery. We follow a hedge lined path to the fort of Issy; the road is full of violets in blossom crushed by the cannon balls.

Right nearby is the stone mill. Often there aren’t enough of us in the Clamart trenches. If the fort’s cannon didn’t support us a surprise attack would be possible: the Versaillais never knew how few of us there were.

It even happened that one night there were only two of us in the trench in front of the station, though I don’t know why: the former pontifical Zouave and myself with loaded rifles: we could at least give warning. We had the unbelievable luck not to be attacked that night. As we went back and forth in the trench he said to me as we met:

“What impression do you have of the life we’re leading?”

“The impression of seeing a river bank before us that we have to reach,” I said.

“I have the impression of reading a picture book,” he answered.

We continued to walk in the trench in the silence of the Versaillais over Clamart.

When Lisbonne came in the morning bringing a crowd with him he was both happy and furious, shaking his head under the bullets that again whistled around us as if he were chasing away flies.

There was a night skirmish in the cemetery in Clamart amidst the graves lit up by flashes that were then again only illuminated by the light of the moon that made visible, white as ghosts, the gravestones behind which burst the rapid lightning of rifles.

Another night expedition with Berceau in the same place, with those who had left us rejoining us under the fire of the Versaillais with a thousand times more danger.

I see all this again as if in a dream in the land of dreams, the dream of freedom.

A student who didn’t share our ideas, but who was even less on the side of the Versaillais, came to Clamart to exchange fire with the aim of verifying his calculation of probabilities.

He had brought a volume of Baudelaire which we read a few pages of when we had the time.

One day when several Federals had been struck by cannonballs in the same place, a small platform in the middle of the trench, he wanted to recheck his calculations and invited me for a cup of coffee.

We comfortably settled ourselves and read the piece entitled “La Charogne.” We had almost finished our coffee when the National Guard threw themselves on us and pulled us away, shouting, “Good God, this has to stop!”

At the same moment the cannonball fell, smashing the cups on the platform and reducing the book to impalpable pieces.

“My calculations were exactly right,” the student said, brushing off the dirt that covered him.

He stayed a few more days, but I never saw him again.

During the Commune the only people I saw lacking in courage was a chubby chap who came to worry the young woman he’d just wed and who was as happy as could be to bring a note from me to Eudes asking the latter to send him back to Paris. I abused his confidence by writing more or less the following:

“My dear Eudes:

“Can you please send this imbecile back to Paris. All he is good for is to cause panic if there were people here capable of being panicked. I’ve convinced him that the cannon shots from our fort are actually from Versailles so that he’ll run away quicker. Please send him away.”

He was so afraid that we never saw him again.

If he kept his federal uniform when the Versailles army entered Paris he would have been immediately shot along with the defenders of the Commune. There were many others in this situation.

The other one of the same type was a young man. One night when there were a handful of us at the Clamart station and the Versailles artillery was firing on us he was seized with the obsession of surrendering and no form of reasoning could shake this idea. I said to him: “Do it if you’d like, but I’m staying here and I’ll blow up the station if you surrender it.” I sat down with a candle in a small chamber where the projectiles were piled up and spent the night there. Someone came to shake my hand and I saw that he was on the watch as well; it was the Negro. The station held out and the young man left the next day and never returned.

A strange adventure occurred in Clamart to Fernandez and me.

We had gone with several Federals to the game warden’s house, to which men of good will had been called.

So many bullets whistled around us that Fernandez said to me: “If I’m killed take care of my little sisters.” We embraced and continued along the road. Three or four wounded men were in the house, lying on the floor or on mattresses. The game warden was absent and his wife, left alone, seemed frightened.

When we started to remove the wounded men she started begging me and Fernandez to leave. Leaving the wounded behind who, she said, couldn’t be transported and should be left under the care of the two or three federals who accompanied us.

Not being able to understand why the woman was acting this way we wouldn’t for anything in the world leave the others in this suspect place.

We removed the wounded with great difficulty on ambulance stretchers that we had brought while the woman crawled after us, begging the two of us to leave on our own.

Seeing that she was getting nowhere she went silent and watched us go away from her front door, carrying our patients upon whom bullets were raining, it being customary for Versailles to fire on ambulances.

We later learned that regular army soldiers hid in the cellar of the game warden. Did this women fear seeing other woman murdered or was she simply delirious?

Along with our wounded we brought a half-dead little Versaillais soldier who. Like the others, was taken to a mobile hospital in Paris where he began to heal. At the moment of the army’s invasion of Paris he would have been killed murdered by the victors just like all the other wounded.

When Eudes went to the Legion of Honor I went to Montrouge with La Cecilia, and then to Neuilly with Dombrowski. These two men physically didn’t resemble each other at all made the same impression during actions; the same rapid gaze, the same decisiveness, the same impassibility.

It was in the trenches of Hautes Bruyères that I came to know Paintendre, the commander of lost children. If this name of lost children was ever justified it was the case for him, for them. So great was their daring that it didn’t seem they could ever be killed. And yet Paintendre was, and many of them as well.

In general, it’s possible to see people as brave as the Federal, but braver never. It was their enthusiasm that could have vanquished with the rapidity of a revolutionary movement.

The slanders about the army of the Commune spread around the provinces; it was made up of bandits and fugitives from justice said Foutriquet.

And yet Paule Mink, Amouroux and other valiant revolutionaries had moved the major cities where Communes were declared who sent their adherence to Paris. the rest of the provinces and the countryside received military reports from Versailles. For example, that on the death of Duval frightened the villages.

“our troops,’ the report said, “took more than 500 prisoners and in them we can up close the faces of the wretches who, to sate their beastly passions, with a light heart had nearly destroyed the country. Low demagogy had never before offered the saddened gaze of honest men more ignoble faces. Most were between 40 — 50 years old, but there were also old men and children in these long lines of hideous individual. Some women could also be seen among them. The cavalry platoon that escorted them had great difficulty in tearing them from the grips of the enraged crowd. Nevertheless, we managed to lead them safe and sound to the great stables.

“As for the individual Duval, that other fake general, he was executed in the morning along with two officers of the Commune’s general staff.

“All three met the fate reserved to all insurgent leaders taken in arms as braggarts.”

(The war of the Communists of Paris by a superior officer of the Versailles Army)

We knew what to expect from the generals of the empire who passed over to the service of the republic in Versailles without themselves or the Assembly changing anything but their title.

One of the future revenges for the murder of Paris will be that of revealing the customary infamous betrayals of military reaction.

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