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THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR — Objectivity and Liberal Scholarship
THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR — Objectivity and Liberal Scholarship
Anarchist Noam Chomsky’s 1969 clinical dissection of historian Gabriel Jackson’s The Spanish Republic and the Civil War:1931-1939 (in American Power and the New Mandarins) which, to quote editor Barry Pateman in his Chomsky on Anarchism, “he links to the liberal ideology prevalent in America in the 1960s, an ideology that reflects ‘an antagonism to mass movements and to social change that escapes the control of privileged elites,’ which in Jackson's work reveals itself through a regular use of negative language to describe the actions of the anarchists. Chomsky, using a rich array of historical texts, brought his points to a wide audience and influenced a new generation of researchers and militants, inspiring them to probe deeper and further. In his portrayal of Jackson's work as representing contemporary American liberal thinking on Vietnam, Chomsky impressively linked past and present, making a shrewd and disturbing comment on liberalism in general. In the words of Peter Werbe: ‘As Chomsky amply and admirably demonstrates, when the major issues of an era are settled in blood, liberalism’s pretense to humane ends or means crumbles under the demands of an implacable state.’” The original essay consists of three parts. Part I, not reproduced here, deals with the Vietnam War and the influence of intellectuals and ‘advisers’ in government and public and foreign policy. The present extract, Part II, focuses on the Spanish Civil War and how the so-called objective ‘conservative, ‘moderate’ and liberal’ intelligentsia use elite ideology and bias to manipulate and mould public opinion. Part III is Chomsky’s summation and conclusion.
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The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution,
The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution,
The final, revised, edition of Burnett Bolloten’s exhaustive and indispensable, 50-year-long scholarly study of Republican/revolutionary politics in the Spanish Civil War (“The Grand Camouflage:, 1961; “The Spanish Revolution”, 1979; “The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution”, 1986), covers the entire period of the war from 1936 to 1939. Welsh-born Bolloten, initially a Communist Party fellow-traveller, was a war correspondent for United Press who witnessed at first hand the rise to power of the Stalin- and bourgeois liberal-backed Spanish Communist Party and how it successfully subverted and repressed the popular revolutionary process that resulted from the failed military-clerico-fascist pronunciamento of July 1936. "Burnett Bolloten's The Spanish Civil War: Revolution and Counterrevolution is a monument of dedicated scholarship that is not likely to be replaced. The best study of the subject in any language, it merits a place beside Gerald Brenan's The Spanish Labyrinth and Raymond Carr's Spain, 1808-1939 as a classic in the historiography of modern Spain." — Paul Avrich, Queens College, City University of New York
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ADVENTURES IN BUKHARA
ADVENTURES IN BUKHARA
Khoja Nasreddin, the central figure of this hilarious and intriguing story of the bazaars and palaces of Old Bukhara, is one of those riotously lovable characters who appear every now and again to tickle the ribs of the world. To travel with him in his adventures through the pages of this book arouses that affection we all feel for the little man facing terrific odds. By the use of a ready tongue, and the exercise of considerable impudence and ingenuity, he succeeds in turning the most unfavourable situations to the advantage of himself and his fellow dwellers in the tents of the lowly. You will enjoy every moment of these remarkable and fascinating tales from Central Asia, and you will regret parting company with Khoja Nasreddin when, having rescued the lady of his choice from the Emir’s harem, he rides from the last pages still thumbing his nose at authority
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HISTORIA DEL ANARCOSINDICALISMO ESPAÑOL Epílogo hasta nuestros días: La España del éxodo y del llanto
HISTORIA DEL ANARCOSINDICALISMO ESPAÑOL Epílogo hasta nuestros días: La España del éxodo y del llanto
HISTORIA DEL ANARCOSINDICALISMO ESPAÑOL llega en nuestra editorial a la 4a Edición. Hace ya tiempo, cuando la dictadura estaba en pleno apogeo, este libro fue uno de los primeros elementos de análisis que tuvimos de la verdadera historia de nuestro pueblo. En ella el «anarco» —como familiarmente se le llamaba— llenaba la tremenda laguna y el total desconocimiento de uno de los movimientos populares y obreros más arraigados en nuestro pueblo: el anarcosindicalismo. A muchos este libro nos ha servido para comenzar y buscar un compromiso con nuestra historia y con la realidad de explotación de la sociedad establecida. Hoy cuando el anarcosindicalismo ha renacido con evidente fuerza, volvemos a publicar este libro. El anarcosindicalismo español ha estado íntimamente ligado a la historia española desde los primeros balbuceos de organización y asociación en el movimiento obrero hasta la máxima aportación confederad en la guerra española que llevó a la colectivización de las tierras, servicios e industrias. Juan Gómez Casas, militante anarcosindicalista ya autor de numerosos estudios sobre el tema, logra en este libro que se ha convertido ya en un clásico de la historia de España y del movimiento obrero, una muy estimable síntesis del anarcosindicalismo. Cierra el libro un epílogo escrito actualmente que, con el título de «La España del éxodo y el llanto», explica sucintamente la evolución del anarcosindicalismo hasta nuestros días.
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THE ALBERT MEMORIAL. The Anarchist Life and Times of Albert Meltzer
THE ALBERT MEMORIAL. The Anarchist Life and Times of Albert Meltzer
Albert Meltzer was one of the most notable and influential figures in the British anarchist movement of the second half of the 20th century. This commemorative appreciation of Albert’s life and work by his close friend and comrade, ‘Black Flag’ cartoonist Phil Ruff, also includes contributions from his European activist contemporaries and a response to the calumnies propagated by those who attempted for several decades to revile or belittle his indefatigable efforts in the cause of human liberation.
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The False Baron von König
The False Baron von König
The so-called ‘Baron von König’ has been of interest to historians of the Spanish anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist movements since 1918, mainly because of his relationship with Superintendent Manuel Bravo Portillo, head of Barcelona’s Special Services Brigade (the then Brigada Politico-Social); that and the fact that on the latter’s death at the hands of a CNT (the anarcho-syndicalist labour union) defence group in September 1919, von König, a French secret service agent, took over as head of the pistoleros, the anti-union death squads funded by the Patronal, the Catalan employers’ confederation. Von König’s role as the killers’ gangmaster was explored in some detail in the three-volume work ‘¡Pistoleros! — The Chronicles of Farquhar McHarg’, but little was known about his activities pre- and post-Spain 1914-1920. Raymond Batkin has prepared the following dossier on ‘von König’s’ background following the publication of French author Éric Maillard’s biography (in French), Rudolf Stallmann alias Baron von König - Rodolfe Lemoine alias Rex; it is the first book based on the life of Rudolf Stallmann (his birth name) from his early years in Berlin through to his death in a French military prison in 1946.
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MORAL COERCION
MORAL COERCION
Galician-born surveyor Ricardo Mella (1861-1925) is regarded by many as one of the major theorists of anarchism in Spain. His moderate tone and outlook set the keynote for fellow-anarchists in Galicia and Asturias as he oposed jacobinism, regionalism, political socialism and extremism of any hue. While many embraced Ferrer's rationalist educational methods, Mella campaigned for "neutral" education. Himself an anarcho-collectivist by inclination, he was one of those who brought Spanish anarchism out of the ghetto and into the workplace. His wide reading, incisive mind and preparedness to tackle the big subjects without going for extremist position has left a lasting imprint on the libertarian movement in Spain. In this work he considers the question — Can society really cope without law and government? What is the nature of moral coercion? How does it manifest itself in human relationships? What is its role in a free and egalitarian society? and how modern capitalist society turns moral coercion on its head.
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The International Brigades and the Comintern in the Spanish Civil War
The International Brigades and the Comintern in the Spanish Civil War
With the UK’s Foreign Recruitment Act making enlistment in a foreign army illegal, the British authorities became increasingly rigorous in their attempts to enforce non-intervention and implement the law, so Brigaders were recruited discretely through the Communist Party network by local cadres and ‘Spanish Aid Committee‘ organisers who took it on themselves to vet all volunteers, especially non-party members. Politically, around sixty per cent of the Scottish IB volunteers were paid-up CPGB members with twenty per cent or so drawn from the Labour Party, with, perhaps, a scattering of ILP, Scottish Socialist Party or Scottish Workers‘ Republican Party members. The remaining twenty per cent claimed to have no formal political allegiances. These figures were more or less the same for the whole of the British Battalion the the XVth International Brigade, although it’s impossible to say how many of the 110 Labour Party members were also — as Lewis Clive was — covert CP members. The British Battalion appears to have had at least seven ILP volunteers which to me was unusual given that the ILP line was close to that of the CNT defence committees: that the social revolution was inseparable from the war. It was for this reason that most of the I75 ILPers who fought in Spain did so with the anarcho-syndicalist militias or, like George Orwell, with the anti-Stalinist Marxist POUM. Few British workers had passports in those days so the usual practice was for the volunteers to make their way across the Channel on special weekend returns — which didn't require passports — and then travel down to Spain with the help of the efficient and well-disciplined French Communist Party— and the French authorities mostly turning a blind eye. The first batch of foreign volunteers to arrive in Spain in the autumn of I936 were obliged to surrender their passports to the ‘Foreigners’ Bureau of the Catalan Communist Party, the PSUC, then controlled by the NKVD, Stalin‘s secret police. Later the International Brigade established its own ‘Control and Security Service’ headed by Alexander Orlov, chief of NKVD operations in Spain. Their passports were never returned and were used in covert NKVD and GRU clandestine operations. There was also an IB ‘Cadre Commission‘ set up in Albacete in February 1937 to monitor and assess the ‘trustworthiness’ of volunteers and to expose 'fascist' spies and 'Trotskyist-anarchist provocateurs. A cadre report on the British Battalion, for example, listed 363 British volunteers, half of them CPers, and described forty-one them as ‘cadres', 142 as reliable, and I33 — of whom forty were Party members — as ‘weak or bad’. . .
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HOW LABOUR GOVERNED 1945-1951
HOW LABOUR GOVERNED 1945-1951
How the Labour Party governed between the years 1945 and 1951, examining their relationship with the working class and how "socialist" it really was. “I look around my colleagues and I see landlords, capitalists and lawyers. We are a cross-section of the national life and this is something that has never happened before.” — Arthur Greenwood, Labour Lord Privy Seal, Hansard, August 17, 1945.
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REPORTER IN SPAIN
REPORTER IN SPAIN
In 1936, Harry Pollitt, the then General Secretary of the Communist Party, asked CPGB member CLAUD COCKBURN (1904-1981) to cover the Spanish Civil War for the Daily Worker. In Spain, under the assumed name of Frank Pitcairn and endorsed by the CPGB, he joined the Fifth Regiment (formed by the Communist-led Antifascist Worker and Peasant Militias — Milicias Antifascistas Obreras y Campesinas — commanded by Enrique Castro Delgado) to report on the war as an ordinary soldier. The result, Reporter in Spain, was published in October 1936 by the Communist Party of Great Britain’s commercial publishing house, Lawrence & Wishart. In Homage to Catalonia (April 1938) George Orwell attacked Cockburn’s Daily Worker reports from Spain, accusing him of serving the ideological interests of the Soviet Union — particularly with regard to his partisan account of the Barcelona May Days of 1937, views that were reflected in his Soviet sponsored newsletter, ‘The Week’ (1933-1941).
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FEUDAL SOCIETY II. Social Classes and Political Organisation
FEUDAL SOCIETY II. Social Classes and Political Organisation
Feudal Society is a great work of historical synthesis in the finest French tradition. The author treats feudalism as a living and vitalising force in the society of Western Europe from the ninth to the thirteenth century. After surveying the social and intellectual conditions in which feudalism developed, Bloch examines the nature of the bond of kinship both as a predecessor and as a concomitant of vassalage. The core of the book is a masterly account of the creation of ties of dependence and of relations of lord and vassal, and the origins and nature of the fief. The nobility and their way of life, knighthood and chivalry, the clergy and other forces in society are also portrayed, and the work concludes with a discussion on feudalism as a type of society. Throughout the author treats history as a living organism and endless process of creative evolution. “Here is one of those rare books of impeccable scholarship (superbly translated by Mr Manyon) which no intelligent person could possibly read without pleasure and interest and excitement. What Bloch’s book gives us is the anatomy of an age. Some would call it sociology rather than history, or at any rate historical sociology. If so, it adds a new dimension which most historical writing lacks.”—
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SPANISH INTELLECT From the Fifth to the Nineteenth Century
SPANISH INTELLECT From the Fifth to the Nineteenth Century
It is in the history of Spain and of Scotland that he (Buckle) now seeks illustrations of these cardinal propositions. Spain and Scotland exemplify more palpably than any other modern peoples the baleful action of the protective spirit of Church and State; and the use to which he turns the history of those two countries is analogous to the value which the anatomist finds in morbid manifestations for the illustration of natural conditions. Spain is the country where the fundamental conditions of national improvement have been most flagrantly violated, and hence the country where the penalty paid for the violation has been most heavy, and where, therefore, it is most instructive to ascertain how far the prevalence of certain opinions causes the decay of the people among whom they predominate. If Spain illustrates the evil results of loyalty and superstition combined, Scotland exemplifies the evil results of superstition, but at the same time manifests how those evil results may be in part neutralized by the absence of the spirit of loyalty. It is to the elucidation of these considerations that Mr. BUCKLE has devoted the present volume, of which we shall, as a preliminary, try to give a running analysis:
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Extracts— THE CNT AT THE CROSSROADS. The Adventures of an Anarchist Heterodox
Extracts— THE CNT AT THE CROSSROADS. The Adventures of an Anarchist Heterodox
Translated extracts from the memoirs of Luis Andrés Edo, an anarchist activist whose life was dedicated to the ‘Idea’ and the struggle for liberty. Throughout his life Luis Andrés Edo remained always both an untiring activist and an intellectual dynamo of the international libertarian movement, constantly provoking thought and developing new anti-authoritarian ideas. His was the voice — the conscience if you like — of what he was proud to call ‘the Apache sector’, defending the anarchist principles of the CNT and fighting untiringly for the restoration of the union’s property and assets seized by the Francoists in 1939, and for justice for the victims of Francoism, particularly the cases of Delgado and Granado the two young anarchists garrotted in 1963 for a crime of which they were innocent. And for at least two generations of young Spanish anarchists who came into contact with him, Luis Andrés Edo was undoubtedly the inspirational role model of the post-Francoist era. From the 1950s until his death in 2009, Edo was to the libertarian movement what Jean Moulin was to the French Resistance. We have only translated four chapters, but should our financial circumstance improve we’ll translate the whole book — a unique and compelling insight into the activities (and shortcomings) of the CNT-in-exile and the wider Spanish Libertarian Movement (MLE). Chapter 1 — Arrival in Barcelona: Can Comte, My Childhood Haunt; From Can Comte to Los Campanarios Chapter 2 — The War/Revolution: The CENU; The Battle of Barcelona; The Barricade as Revolutionary Structure; May ’37; Historical notes; The Iron Column; The “Ortiz Case”; The Fall of Barcelona Chapter 4: — Exile: My First Time Deserting from the Army; Sombernon: The Great Electrical Transformer; First Contact with José Cano Flores; On the Building Squad with Miguel ‘Ferrer’ (Miguel García García); House-building in Épinal (Vosges); Moscardó in Paris and the Big Crackdown in Barcelona (October 1949); The Lyon Station Hold-up; I Join the Big ‘Gillette-Thaon’ Concern; First Clandestine Trip to Barcelona (1951); Arrested on the Figueres to Gerona Leg (1952); A Prisoner in Figueres Castle; Deserting the Army a Second Time (1954) Chapter 5 — Arrival in Paris: I Discover the Laureano Cerrada ‘Affair’; First Contacts with the Libertarian Youth and with Lucio Urtubia; Assemblyism: I Discover the Mediterranean in Paris; Launching the Clichy Local Libertarian Youth Federation; Contacts with Quico; Contacts with Laureano Cerrada; The End of Quico and his Group; Pascual Palacios: A “Fourth Dimension”; The ‘Sinking’ Operation Coordinated by Pascual Palacios; The Congress of Limoges, 1960
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LA CNT En La Encrucijada: Aventuras De Un heterodoxo
LA CNT En La Encrucijada: Aventuras De Un heterodoxo
Sin título académico alguno, Luis Andrés Edo es producto, experimental e intelectual, del asambleísmo de la CNT, de la Asamblea más importante de la historia del Exilio: La Asamblea de París, que se mantuvo funcionando durante 40 años. Luis Andrés Edo descubrió dicha Asamblea tras su segunda deserción del Ejercito en 1954 como asiduo participante, todos los domingos, hasta 1966, cuando fue capturado en Madrid por la Unidad Móvil de la Brigada Político Social. A esa formación asamblearia debe añadirse otra fase complementaria: sus diversos y prolongados pasajes (por un total de diez años) cumplidos en prisiones franquistas, donde puso a prueba toda su capacidad analítica adquirida en aquel auténtico Magisterio Asambleario citado más arriba, y se tradujo en innumerables informes sobre la situación carcelaria de aquellos años (a los que se hace referencia en este libro) y en un hecho histórico sin precedentes de las cárceles españolas, durante el franquismo: La ausencia de debates entre las diversas tendencias políticas de los presos se rompe en el Penal de Soria en 1967-68, de cuyas discusiones Luis Andrés Edo elaboró clandestinamente su libro La Corriente, de la que hace ahora una amplia referencia. Todas estas consecuencias están precedidas de los momentos históricos que se vivieron a partir del 19 de julio de 1936, en Barcelona, donde residía a sus diez años de edad, y sobre todo por la influencia del proyecto pedagógico del laicismo en la Escuela Primaria que para los niños fue como descubrir un nuevo “planeta”: el Consell de l’Escola Nova Unificada (CENU) cuya experiencia le marcaría para toda su vida. Con estas diversas, y distintas, dinámicas afrontará situaciones límites, como los interrogatorios policiales, y los acontecimientos penitenciarios, entre los que cabe destacar el primer motín de la cárcel Modelo de Barcelona (antes de la muerte de Franco), en octubre de 1975.
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MY DISILLUSIONMENT IN RUSSIA
MY DISILLUSIONMENT IN RUSSIA
Deported American anarchist Emma Goldman travels to Russia for the first time in 30 years. She provides a revealing picture on the rampant oportunism throughout the Soviet government and its steady roots throughout the bureacracy. In addition she focuses on how the Soviet government began to open its arms after the Civil War to those who once had fought against it: the Mensheviks, Socialist-Revolutionaries, and even the old tsarists. While these forces of the right were now coming into cooperation with the Soviet government, those on the extreme left saw an utter betrayal of revolutionary principles. At the one hand, during the Civil War, the Bolsheviks were much to brutal to the rightists, now they were much to nice. The extreme left then began to adamantly push for the overthrow of the Soviet government. Goldman explains life in Soviet Russia from the viewpoint of the extreme left revolutionaries, and charts the undemocratic injustices that occur to them as a result. Goldman was dismayed when she discovered that Doubleday, Page & Company had, without informing her, changed the title of her work from “My Two Years in Russia” to “My Disillusionment in Russia.” Even worse, the publisher cut the last twelve chapters of the manuscript (starting with Chapter 22: Odessa), omitting her account of crucial events such as the Kronstadt rebellion and the afterword in which she reflected on the trajectory of the revolution after the Bolsheviks seized power. At Goldman’s insistence, the omitted chapters were published as a separate volume: My Further Disillusionment in Russia (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1924). The complete text in one volume, with an introduction by Rebecca West, appeared the following year: My Disillusionment in Russia (London: C. W. Daniel Company, 1925).
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MEMOIRS OF A REVOLUTIONIST
MEMOIRS OF A REVOLUTIONIST
Peter Kropotkin’s (1842-1921) account of his journey from privileged childhood, through military service and two years in prison to anarchist thinker and activist was originally serialised in The Atlantic Monthly from September 1898 to September 1899. It provides a fascinating account of his intellectual development and radicalisation, of life under tsarist rule, and of the early European socialist movement.
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WITHOUT A GLIMMER OF REMORSE. The remarkable story of Sir Arthur Connan Doyle’s chauffeur
WITHOUT A GLIMMER OF REMORSE. The remarkable story of Sir Arthur Connan Doyle’s chauffeur
When in 1910 Conan Doyle, creator of Sherlock Holmes, engaged Jules Bonnot as his chauffeur in London he could hardly have realized that here was a character every bit as colourful as one of his own inventions. Returning to France at the end of that year, Bonnot went to go on to become Paris's public enemy number one, an inspired bandit leader of a group of anarchists who struck terror into bourgeois pre-WWI France and triggered a ferocious anti-proletarian crackdown. Bonnot's gang consisted of a group of French anarchists associated with the magazine L'Anarchie. The founder of the group, Raymond Callemin (nicknamed Raymond la Science), regarded Mikhail Bakunin and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon as his role models. Bonnot joined them in December 1911, and that month their first robbery took place at the Société Générale Bank in Paris, netting them booty equal to 5126 Francs, with more in securities. They have the dubious honour of being the first to use an automobile to flee the scene of a crime – the getaway car was a stolen Delaunay-Belleville — presaging by over twenty years the methods of John Dillinger and Bonnie and Clyde. The French central police were determined to catch the gang; using the registry of anarchist organizations they managed to arrest one man as well as many of the gang’s supporters. In March 1912, gang member Octave Garnier sent a mocking letter to the Sûreté Nationale – with his fingerprints. The French police did not yet use fingerprinting. Sûreté chief Xavier Guichard took the matter personally. Politicians became concerned, increasing police funding by 800,000 francs. Banks began to prepare for forthcoming robberies and many cashiers armed themselves. The Société Générale promised a reward of 100,000 francs for information leading to arrests. On April 28, police tracked Bonnot to a house in a Paris suburb. They besieged the place with 500 armed policemen, soldiers, firemen, military engineers and private gun-owners. By noon, after sporadic shooting from both sides, Paris police chief Lépine sent three policemen to put a dynamite charge under the house. The explosion demolished the front of the building. Bonnot, hiding in a mattress, returned fire until Lépine shot him in the head. Two weeks later 300 policemen and gendarmes and 800 soldiers began another siege in another Paris suburb. The firing from both sides was intense, and an explosion again decided things in favour of the Sûreté chief, when the remnants of Bonnot’s gang of robbers were blown up once and for all. Pino Cacucci offers us an affectionate, fast-paced but accurate account of the life of the extraordinary Jules Bonnot — car enthusiast, chauffeur, worker, soldier, bank robber — a man with a long-cherished dream of absolute freedom; an anarchist who felt it his duty to challenge bourgeois society, staking his all. A tragically romantic hero, Jules Bonnot
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THE BUTCHER OF LES HURLUS
THE BUTCHER OF LES HURLUS
Jean Amila (Jean Meckert, 1910-1995), libertarian author and son of an anarchist and a deserter, wrote twenty-one thrillers, in most of which he revealed his anarchist, anti-militarist, anti-statist and anti-clerical sympathies. Following the publication of his 1971 novel ‘La vierge et le taureau’ (The Virgin and the Bull)— which dealt with highly immoral French nuclear and bacteriological experiments in the South Pacific (presaging the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior and the murder of photographer Fernando Pereira in Auckland harbour in 1985)— he was brutally attacked, probably by French government agents, and left for dead. ‘The Butcher of Les Hurlus’ (Le Boucher des Hurlus ) is the story of Michou, the eight-year-old son of a soldier shot for mutiny in WWI. His mother, ridiculed and harassed by her neighbours as the wife of a mutineer, is interned and Michou sent to an orphanage where he and three young companions decide to take their revenge. With the ‘Spanish Flu’ decimating the towns and villages of France, they head for the front line to kill one of the architects of theirs and France’s misfortunes, divisional general Des Gringues….
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ANARCHISM (Kropotkin)
ANARCHISM (Kropotkin)
Kropotkin's entry on 'anarchism' for the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1910). Anarchism is "the name given to a principle or theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government - harmony in such a society being obtained, not by submission to law, or by obedience to any authority, but by free agreements concluded between the various groups, territorial and professional, freely constituted for the sake of production and consumption, as also for the satisfaction of the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being."
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ANARCHY (Élisée Reclus)
ANARCHY (Élisée Reclus)
The anarchist ideas of renowned French geographer, writer and activist Élisée Reclus (5 March 1830 – 4 July 1905) who produced his 19-volume masterwork, La Nouvelle Géographie universelle, la terre et les hommes ("Universal Geography"), over a period of nearly 20 years (1875–1894). In 1892 he was awarded the prestigious Gold Medal of the Paris Geographical Society for this work, despite having been banished from France because of his role in the Paris Commune of 1871. The text is based on a talk originally delivered to the Brussels Masonic Lodge ,“The Philanthropic Friends,” on June 18, 1894. It was later published as l’Anarchie in Les Temps Nouveaux 18 (May 25-June 1,1895).
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 Posted by at 1:33 pm